[General Situation of Geography]
1. Location and area. Located in the center of Shandong Province, Jinan is situated between latitude 36 ° 01 ' - 37 ° 32' N and longitude 116°11′- 117°44′E. It relies on the Taishan Mountain in the south and strides over the Yellow River in the north. It is just at the junction of the low mountainous and hilly area in central and south Shandong and the alluvial plain in northwest Shandong, descending from the south to north. Its terrain can be divided into three areas: the area close to the Yellow River in the north, the plain area at the piedmont in the center and the hilly area in the south. Jinan is the capital of Shandong, a large coastal economic province in east China. It is the province's political, economic, cultural, technological, educational and financial center, and an important transportation hub. Its neighbors include Dezhou, Binzhou, Zibo, Laiwu, Tai’an and Liaocheng. It has a total area of 7,998 square km, including an urban area of 3,303 square km.
2. Natural conditions. 1) Geology. The northern part comprises Jiyang Depression and Zibo-Chiping Depression, and the southern part rises in central Shandong. The stratum is old in the south and new in the north. The southern part is mainly Paleozoic limestone and the northern part mainly Cenozoic loess and gravel deposits. The rock stratum of uniclinal structure tilting northwards has three faults, laying a foundation for the structure of Jinan. 2) Terrain. It descends from south to north, being low mountains and hills, declining plain at the piedmont and allusive plain of the Yellow River in turn. 3) Climate. Jinan has a warm temperate continental monsoon climate, with four distinct seasons and sufficient sunshine. The annual average temperature is 13.6℃. It is the coldest in January, with an average temperature of 1.9℃ below zero. It is the hottest in July, with an average temperature of 27.0℃. The average annual precipitation is 614.0 mm. 4) Hydrology. Rivers in Jinan are subject to the Yellow River, Small Qinghe River and Haihe River Systems respectively. There are Daming, Baiyun and other lakes. At the northern foot of the mountainous area, a large number of spring groups are exposed. Only in the urban area are there four major spring groups, namely Baotu, Heihu, Wulong and Zhenzhu (Pearl).
3. Natural resources. 1) Land resource. The city has a total land area of 7,998 square km, divided into six kinds—brown soil, cinnamon soil, moisture soil, lime concretion black soil, paddy soil and aeolian sandy soil. The brown soil and cinnamon soil are major ones. 2) Mineral resources, mainly including coal, oil, natural gas, iron, geothermal energy and construction materials. 3) The local water resources amount to 1.59 billion cubic meters, including 1.47 billion cubic meters available. 4) Biological resources. There are 149 families of plants, totaling 1,175 kinds and varieties, and 211 kinds of terrestrial wild animals.
Jinan is located between latitude 36 ° 02 ' - 37 ° 33'[A1] N and longitude 116°13′- 117°45′E.[A2] At the northern foot of Taishan Mountain, Jinan has diversified terrain, being plain along the Yellow River in the north, plain at the piedmont in the center and low mountains and hills in the south, rising from north to south. The city has a warm temperate continental monsoon climate with four distinct seasons. The winter is cold and the summer hot. Due to the control by polar or modified polar continental air mass, Jinan in winter constantly suffers from the Siberian dry and cold air mass. Thus, northwest, north and northeast winds prevail, resulting in dry, cold and fine weather with little rainfall in winter. In summer, controlled by tropical and subtropical marine air masses, southwest, south and southeast winds prevail, resulting in moist and hot weather with concentrated rainfalls and frequent thunderstorms. Spring and autumn are transitional seasons for winter and summer monsoons, with changing wind. The annual average temperature is 14.6℃, leading the province.
Meteorological disasters in Jinan mainly include torrential rain, hail, thunderstorm, high wind, dense fog, cold wave, frost, etc. Under the influence of monsoon climate, climate change in Jinan fluctuates at different degrees and is sudden and variant, thus forming and causing a variety of meteorological disasters.
Torrential rain: one of the major disastrous weathers in Jinan, mostly occurring from late June to early September. In 50 years from 1951 to 2010, there were 143 torrential rains in the urban area of the city, 2.9 ones per annum on average. The largest daily precipitation is 298.4 mm, occurring on July 16, 1962.
Hail: one of the strong convective weathers, occurring mostly in spring and autumn and most frequently between spring and summer and between summer and autumn. Statistics made in 30 years from 1971 to 2000 show that hail hit Jinan for 16 times and Jiyang most, 22 times.
Thunderstorm: it mostly occurs between May and August in Jinan, mostly accompanied by short-term heavy rainfall. The city's annual average number of thunderstorm days is 25.8.
High wind: one of the relatively common meteorological disasters in Jinan, frequent in 1970s and 1980s and decreased in recent two decades. The city's annual average number of gale days is 9.7, but that in the urban area 22.6 days, far more than other counties (cities) and districts.
Dense fog: the water vapor in the air near the ground is liquefied into dense fog after touching the relatively cold ground. It easily occurs in winter and August in Jinan. The city's annual average number of fog days is 21.3. Jiyang is the most vulnerable place, with 34.1 dense fog days per annum on average.
Frost: a kind of relatively common agricultural meteorological disasters, mostly occurring in winter and spring. The first frost date in Jinan usually falls into mid and later October and the last frost date in late March and early April. The annual average number of frost days in the urban area of Jinan is 46.3.